Dallas-based Heritage Auctions said the winning bidder declined to be identified.
Hundreds of in-person, telephone and online bidders were vying Saturday for various items. They include a gun belt owned by legendary outlaw Jesse James and the trademark white suit worn by Kentucky Fried Chicken founder "Colonel" Harland Sanders.
Many scholars believe Brown and his raid hastened the start of the Civil War as he tried to end slavery.
The Connecticut native and some followers seized the arsenal, hoping to provide 100,000 weapons to slaves who never joined them. Brown later was hanged.